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Algorithms for Communications Systems and their Applications

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发表于 2009-6-24 09:22:36 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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1 Elements of signal theory 1
1.1 Signal space :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
Properties of a linear space ::::::::::::::::::: 1
Inner product :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 3
1.2 Discrete signal representation ::::::::::::::::::::::: 4
The principle of orthogonality ::::::::::::::::: 6
Signal representation :::::::::::::::::::::: 6
Gram–Schmidt orthonormalization procedure ::::::::: 8
1.3 Continuous-time linear systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 13
1.4 Discrete-time linear systems :::::::::::::::::::::::: 17
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) ::::::::::::::: 19
The DFT operator :::::::::::::::::::::::: 20
Circular and linear convolution via DFT :::::::::::: 21
Convolution by the overlap-save method :::::::::::: 23
IIR and FIR filters ::::::::::::::::::::::: 25
1.5 Signal bandwidth ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 28
The sampling theorem ::::::::::::::::::::: 30
Heaviside conditions for the absence of signal distortion ::: 32
1.6 Passband signals :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 33
Complex representation ::::::::::::::::::::: 33
Relation between x and x.bb/
:::::::::::::::::: 34
Baseband equivalent of a transformation :::::::::::: 42
Envelope and instantaneous phase and frequency ::::::: 43
1.7 Second-order analysis of random processes :::::::::::::::: 44
1.7.1 Correlation ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 45
Properties of the autocorrelation function ::::::::::: 46
1.7.2 Power spectral density ::::::::::::::::::::::: 46
Spectral lines in the PSD :::::::::::::::::::: 47
Cross-power spectral density :::::::::::::::::: 48
Properties of the PSD :::::::::::::::::::::: 48
PSD of processes through linear transformations :::::::: 49
PSD of processes through filtering ::::::::::::::: 50
1.7.3 PSD of discrete-time random processes :::::::::::::: 50
Spectral lines in the PSD :::::::::::::::::::: 51
PSD of processes through filtering ::::::::::::::: 52
Minimum-phase spectral factorization ::::::::::::: 53
1.7.4 PSD of passband processes :::::::::::::::::::: 54
PSD of the quadrature components
of a random process :::::::::::::::: 54
Cyclostationary processes :::::::::::::::::::: 56
1.8 The autocorrelation matrix ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 63
Definition :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 63
Properties :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 63
Eigenvalues ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 63
Other properties ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 64
Eigenvalue analysis for Hermitian matrices :::::::::: 65
1.9 Examples of random processes :::::::::::::::::::::: 67
1.10 Matched filter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 73
Matched filter in the presence of white noise ::::::::: 74
1.11 Ergodic random processes ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 76
1.11.1 Mean value estimators ::::::::::::::::::::::: 78
Rectangular window :::::::::::::::::::::: 80
Exponential filter :::::::::::::::::::::::: 81
General window ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 82
1.11.2 Correlation estimators ::::::::::::::::::::::: 82
Unbiased estimate :::::::::::::::::::::::: 82
Biased estimate ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 83
1.11.3 Power spectral density estimators ::::::::::::::::: 84
Periodogram or instantaneous spectrum :::::::::::: 84
Welch periodogram ::::::::::::::::::::::: 85
Blackman and Tukey correlogram ::::::::::::::: 86
Windowing and window closing :::::::::::::::: 86
1.12 Parametric models of random processes :::::::::::::::::: 90
armA.p; q/ model :::::::::::::::::::::: 90
MA(q) model :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91
AR(N) model :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91
Spectral factorization of an AR(N) model ::::::::::: 94
Whitening filter ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 94
Relation between ARMA, MA and AR models :::::::: 94
1.12.1 Autocorrelation of AR processes ::::::::::::::::: 96
1.12.2 Spectral estimation of an AR.N/ process ::::::::::::: 98
Some useful relations :::::::::::::::::::::: 99
AR model of sinusoidal processes ::::::::::::::: 101
1.13 Guide to the bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 102
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 104
1.A Multirate systems ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 104
1.A.1 Fundamentals ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 104
1.A.2 Decimation :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 106
1.A.3 Interpolation :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109
1.A.4 Decimator filter :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 110
1.A.5 Interpolator filter :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 112
1.A.6 Rate conversion :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 113
1.A.7 Time interpolation ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 116
Linear interpolation ::::::::::::::::::::::: 116
Quadratic interpolation ::::::::::::::::::::: 118
1.A.8 The noble identities :::::::::::::::::::::::: 118
1.A.9 The polyphase representation ::::::::::::::::::: 119
Efficient implementations :::::::::::::::::::: 120
1.B Generation of Gaussian noise ::::::::::::::::::::::: 127
2 The Wiener filter and linear prediction 129
2.1 The Wiener filter :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 129
Matrix formulation ::::::::::::::::::::::: 130
Determination of the optimum filter coefficients :::::::: 132
The principle of orthogonality ::::::::::::::::: 134
Expression of the minimum mean-square error ::::::::: 135
Characterization of the cost function surface :::::::::: 135
The Wiener filter in the z-domain ::::::::::::::: 136
2.2 Linear prediction :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 140
Forward linear predictor :::::::::::::::::::: 140
Optimum predictor coefficients ::::::::::::::::: 141
Forward “prediction error filter” :::::::::::::::: 142
Relation between linear prediction and AR models :::::: 143
First and second order solutions :::::::::::::::: 144
2.2.1 The Levinson–Durbin algorithm ::::::::::::::::: 145
Lattice filters :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 146
2.2.2 The Delsarte–Genin algorithm :::::::::::::::::: 147
2.3 The least squares (LS) method :::::::::::::::::::::: 148
Data windowing ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 149
Matrix formulation ::::::::::::::::::::::: 149
Correlation matrix  :::::::::::::::::::::: 150
Determination of the optimum filter coefficients :::::::: 150
2.3.1 The principle of orthogonality ::::::::::::::::::: 151
Expressions of the minimum cost function ::::::::::: 152
The normal equation using the T matrix :::::::::::: 152
Geometric interpretation: the projection operator :::::::: 153
2.3.2 Solutions to the LS problem ::::::::::::::::::: 154
Singular value decomposition of T ::::::::::::::: 155
Minimum norm solution :::::::::::::::::::: 157
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 158
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 159
2.A The estimation problem :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 159
The estimation problem for random variables ::::::::: 159
MMSE estimation :::::::::::::::::::::::: 159
Extension to multiple observations ::::::::::::::: 160
MMSE linear estimation :::::::::::::::::::: 161
MMSE linear estimation for random vectors :::::::::: 162
3 Adaptive transversal filters 165
3.1 Adaptive transversal filter: MSE criterion ::::::::::::::::: 166
3.1.1 Steepest descent or gradient algorithm :::::::::::::: 166
Stability of the steepest descent algorithm ::::::::::: 168
Conditions for convergence ::::::::::::::::::: 169
Choice of the adaptation gain for fastest convergence ::::: 170
Transient behavior of the MSE ::::::::::::::::: 171
3.1.2 The least mean-square (LMS) algorithm ::::::::::::: 173
Implementation ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 173
Computational complexity ::::::::::::::::::: 175
Canonical model :::::::::::::::::::::::: 175
Conditions for convergence ::::::::::::::::::: 175
3.1.3 Convergence analysis of the LMS algorithm ::::::::::: 177
Convergence of the mean :::::::::::::::::::: 178
Convergence in the mean-square sense (real scalar case) ::: 179
Convergence in the mean-square sense (general case) ::::: 180
Basic results ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 183
Observations :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 184
Final remarks :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 186
3.1.4 Other versions of the LMS algorithm ::::::::::::::: 186
Leaky LMS ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 187
Sign algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 187
Sigmoidal algorithm :::::::::::::::::::::: 188
Normalized LMS :::::::::::::::::::::::: 189
Variable adaptation gain :::::::::::::::::::: 189
LMS for lattice filters :::::::::::::::::::::: 191
3.1.5 Example of application: the predictor ::::::::::::::: 191
3.2 The recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm ::::::::::::::: 197
Normal equation :::::::::::::::::::::::: 198
Derivation of the RLS algorithm :::::::::::::::: 199
Initialization of the RLS algorithm ::::::::::::::: 201
Recursive form of Emin ::::::::::::::::::::: 202
Convergence of the RLS algorithm ::::::::::::::: 203
Computational complexity of the RLS algorithm :::::::: 203
Example of application: the predictor ::::::::::::: 203
3.3 Fast recursive algorithms ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 204
3.3.1 Comparison of the various algorithms :::::::::::::: 205
3.4 Block adaptive algorithms in the frequency domain ::::::::::: 205
3.4.1 Block LMS algorithm in the frequency domain:
the basic scheme :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 206
Computational complexity of the block LMS
algorithm via FFT ::::::::::::::::: 206
3.4.2 Block LMS algorithm in the frequency domain:
the FLMS algorithm :::::::::::::::::::::::: 207
Computational complexity of the FLMS algorithm ::::::: 209
Convergence in the mean of the coefficients
for the FLMS algorithm :::::::::::::: 211
3.5 LMS algorithm in a transformed domain ::::::::::::::::: 211
3.5.1 Basic scheme ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 212
On the speed of convergence :::::::::::::::::: 214
3.5.2 Normalized FLMS algorithm ::::::::::::::::::: 214
3.5.3 LMS algorithm in the frequency domain ::::::::::::: 214
3.5.4 LMS algorithm in the DCT domain :::::::::::::::: 215
3.5.5 General observations ::::::::::::::::::::::: 216
3.6 Examples of application ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 216
3.6.1 System identification ::::::::::::::::::::::: 216
Linear case ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 217
Finite alphabet case ::::::::::::::::::::::: 220
3.6.2 Adaptive cancellation of interfering signals :::::::::::: 221
General solution ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 222
3.6.3 Cancellation of a sinusoidal interferer with known frequency :: 224
3.6.4 Disturbance cancellation for speech signals :::::::::::: 224
3.6.5 Echo cancellation in subscriber loops ::::::::::::::: 225
3.6.6 Adaptive antenna arrays :::::::::::::::::::::: 226
3.6.7 Cancellation of a periodic interfering signal ::::::::::: 227
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 229
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 233
3.A PN sequences ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 233
Maximal-length sequences ::::::::::::::::::: 233
CAZAC sequences ::::::::::::::::::::::: 235
Gold sequences ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 236
3.B Identification of a FIR system by PN sequences ::::::::::::: 239
3.B.1 Correlation method :::::::::::::::::::::::: 239
Signal-to-estimation error ratio ::::::::::::::::: 241
3.B.2 Methods in the frequency domain ::::::::::::::::: 242
System identification in the absence of noise :::::::::: 242
System identification in the presence of noise ::::::::: 243
3.B.3 The LS method :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 244
Formulation using the data matrix ::::::::::::::: 246
Computation of the signal-to-estimation error ratio :::::: 246
3.B.4 The LMMSE method ::::::::::::::::::::::: 249
3.B.5 Identification of a continuous-time system :::::::::::: 251
4 Transmission media 255
4.1 Electrical characterization of a transmission system :::::::::::: 255
Simplified scheme of a transmission system :::::::::: 255
Characterization of an active device :::::::::::::: 257
Conditions for the absence of signal distortion ::::::::: 259
Characterization of a 2-port network :::::::::::::: 259
Measurement of signal power ::::::::::::::::: 262
4.2 Noise generated by electrical devices and networks :::::::::::: 263
Thermal noise :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 263
Shot noise :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 265
Noise in diodes and transistors ::::::::::::::::: 265
Noise temperature of a two-terminal device :::::::::: 265
Noise temperature of a 2-port network ::::::::::::: 266
Equivalent-noise models :::::::::::::::::::: 267
Noise figure of a 2-port network :::::::::::::::: 268
Cascade of 2-port networks ::::::::::::::::::: 270
4.3 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) :::::::::::::::::::::::: 272
SNR for a two-terminal device ::::::::::::::::: 272
SNR for a 2-port network ::::::::::::::::::: 273
Relation between noise figure and SNR :::::::::::: 274
4.4 Transmission lines ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 275
4.4.1 Fundamentals of transmission line theory ::::::::::::: 275
Ideal transmission line ::::::::::::::::::::: 276
Non-ideal transmission line ::::::::::::::::::: 279
Frequency response ::::::::::::::::::::::: 279
Conditions for the absence of signal distortion ::::::::: 282
Impulse response of a non-ideal transmission line ::::::: 282
Secondary constants of some transmission lines :::::::: 283
4.4.2 Cross-talk ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 286
Near-end cross-talk ::::::::::::::::::::::: 288
Far-end cross-talk :::::::::::::::::::::::: 290
4.5 Optical fibers :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 291
Description of a fiber-optic transmission system :::::::: 292
4.6 Radio links ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 294
4.6.1 Frequency ranges for radio transmission ::::::::::::: 295
Radiation masks ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 296
4.6.2 Narrowband radio channel model ::::::::::::::::: 296
Equivalent circuit at the receiver :::::::::::::::: 299
Multipath :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 299
4.6.3 Doppler shift :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 303
4.6.4 Propagation of wideband signals ::::::::::::::::: 305
Channel parameters in the presence of multipath :::::::: 307
Statistical description of fading channels :::::::::::: 307
4.6.5 Continuous-time channel model :::::::::::::::::: 309
Power delay profile ::::::::::::::::::::::: 310
Doppler spectrum :::::::::::::::::::::::: 311
Doppler spectrum models :::::::::::::::::::: 313
Shadowing ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 313
Final remarks :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 314
4.6.6 Discrete-time model for fading channels ::::::::::::: 315
Generation of a process with a pre-assigned spectrum ::::: 316
4.7 Telephone channel ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 318
4.7.1 Characteristics ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 318
Linear distortion :::::::::::::::::::::::: 319
Noise sources :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 319
Non-linear distortion :::::::::::::::::::::: 319
Frequency offset :::::::::::::::::::::::: 319
Phase jitter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 321
Echo ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 321
4.8 Transmission channel: general model ::::::::::::::::::: 322
Power amplifier (HPA) ::::::::::::::::::::: 322
Transmission medium :::::::::::::::::::::: 326
Additive noise :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 326
Phase noise ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 326
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 328
5 Digital representation of waveforms 331
5.1 Analog and digital access ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 331
5.1.1 Digital representation of speech :::::::::::::::::: 332
Some waveforms :::::::::::::::::::::::: 332
Speech coding :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 337
The interpolator filter as a holder :::::::::::::::: 338
Sizing of the binary channel parameters :::::::::::: 340
5.1.2 Coding techniques and applications :::::::::::::::: 341
5.2 Instantaneous quantization ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 344
5.2.1 Parameters of a quantizer ::::::::::::::::::::: 344
5.2.2 Uniform quantizers :::::::::::::::::::::::: 346
Quantization error :::::::::::::::::::::::: 347
Relation between 1, b and −sat :::::::::::::::: 350
Statistical description of the quantization noise :::::::: 350
Statistical power of the quantization error ::::::::::: 352
Design of a uniform quantizer ::::::::::::::::: 353
Signal-to-quantization error ratio :::::::::::::::: 354
Implementations of uniform PCM encoders :::::::::: 357
5.3 Non-uniform quantizers :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 358
Three examples of implementation ::::::::::::::: 359
5.3.1 Companding techniques :::::::::::::::::::::: 360
Signal-to-quantization error ratio :::::::::::::::: 364
Digital compression ::::::::::::::::::::::: 365
Signal-to-quantization noise ratio mask ::::::::::::: 366
5.3.2 Optimum quantizer in the MSE sense ::::::::::::::: 366
Max algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 369
Lloyd algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 370
Expression of 3q for a very fine quantization ::::::::: 371
Performance of non-uniform quantizers :::::::::::: 374
5.4 Adaptive quantization ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 377
General scheme ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 377
5.4.1 Feedforward adaptive quantizer :::::::::::::::::: 379
Performance ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 380
5.4.2 Feedback adaptive quantizers ::::::::::::::::::: 381
Estimate of ¦s .k/:::::::::::::::::::::::: 382
5.5 Differential coding (DPCM) :::::::::::::::::::::::: 385
5.5.1 Configuration with feedback quantizer :::::::::::::: 386
5.5.2 Alternative configuration ::::::::::::::::::::: 389
5.5.3 Expression of the optimum coefficients :::::::::::::: 391
Effects due to the presence of the quantizer :::::::::: 392
5.5.4 Adaptive predictors :::::::::::::::::::::::: 393
Adaptive feedforward predictors :::::::::::::::: 394
Sequential adaptive feedback predictors :::::::::::: 394
Performance ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 398
5.5.5 Alternative structures for the predictor :::::::::::::: 398
All-pole predictor :::::::::::::::::::::::: 398
All-zero predictor :::::::::::::::::::::::: 399
Pole-zero predictor ::::::::::::::::::::::: 399
Pitch predictor ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 400
APC ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 401
5.6 Delta modulation ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 404
5.6.1 Oversampling and quantization error ::::::::::::::: 404
5.6.2 Linear delta modulation (LDM) :::::::::::::::::: 407
LDM implementation :::::::::::::::::::::: 408
Choice of system parameters :::::::::::::::::: 408
5.6.3 Adaptive delta modulation (ADM) :::::::::::::::: 410
Continuously variable slope delta modulation (CVSDM) ::: 411
ADM with second-order predictors ::::::::::::::: 412
5.6.4 PCM encoder via LDM ::::::::::::::::::::: 412
5.6.5 Sigma delta modulation (6DM) :::::::::::::::::: 413
5.7 Coding by modeling :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 413
Vocoder or LPC ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 414
RPE coding ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 415
CELP coding :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 416
Multipulse coding :::::::::::::::::::::::: 417
5.8 Vector quantization (VQ) ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 417
5.8.1 Characterization of VQ :::::::::::::::::::::: 418
Parameters determining VQ performance :::::::::::: 418
Comparison between VQ and scalar quantization ::::::: 420
5.8.2 Optimum quantization ::::::::::::::::::::::: 421
Generalized Lloyd algorithm :::::::::::::::::: 422
5.8.3 LBG algorithm :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 424
Choice of the initial codebook ::::::::::::::::: 425
Description of the LBG algorithm with splitting procedure :: 426
Selection of the training sequence ::::::::::::::: 426
5.8.4 Variants of VQ :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 429
Tree search VQ ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 429
Multistage VQ ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 430
Product code VQ :::::::::::::::::::::::: 430
5.9 Other coding techniques :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 432
Adaptive transform coding (ATC) ::::::::::::::: 433
Sub-band coding (SBC) ::::::::::::::::::::: 433
5.10 Source coding ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 433
5.11 Speech and audio standards :::::::::::::::::::::::: 434
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 435
6 Modulation theory 437
6.1 Theory of optimum detection ::::::::::::::::::::::: 437
Statistics of the random variables fwi g ::::::::::::: 439
Sufficient statistics ::::::::::::::::::::::: 440
Decision criterion :::::::::::::::::::::::: 440
Theorem of irrelevance ::::::::::::::::::::: 442
Implementations of the maximum likelihood criterion ::::: 445
Error probability :::::::::::::::::::::::: 447
6.1.1 Examples of binary signalling ::::::::::::::::::: 449
Antipodal signals (² D1) ::::::::::::::::::: 449
Orthogonal signals (² D 0) ::::::::::::::::::: 450
Binary FSK ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 452
6.1.2 Limits on the probability of error ::::::::::::::::: 454
Upper limit ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 454
Lower limit ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 455
6.2 Simplified model of a transmission system and definition
of binary channel ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 456
Parameters of a transmission system :::::::::::::: 458
Relations among parameters :::::::::::::::::: 459
6.3 Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) :::::::::::::::::::: 461
6.4 Phase-shift keying (PSK) ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 465
Binary PSK (BPSK) :::::::::::::::::::::: 470
Quadrature PSK (QPSK) :::::::::::::::::::: 472
6.5 Differential PSK (DPSK) ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 474
6.5.1 Error probability for an M-DPSK system ::::::::::::: 475
6.5.2 Differential encoding and coherent demodulation ::::::::: 477
Binary case (M D 2, differentially encoded BPSK) :::::: 477
Multilevel case ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 478
6.6 AM-PM or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) ::::::::::: 480
Comparison between PSK and QAM :::::::::::::: 485
6.7 Modulation methods using orthogonal and biorthogonal signals ::::: 486
6.7.1 Modulation with orthogonal signals :::::::::::::::: 486
Probability of error ::::::::::::::::::::::: 489
Limit of the probability of error for M increasing to infinity : 492
6.7.2 Modulation with biorthogonal signals ::::::::::::::: 493
Probability of error ::::::::::::::::::::::: 494
6.8 Binary sequences and coding ::::::::::::::::::::::: 496
Optimum receiver ::::::::::::::::::::::: 498
6.9 Comparison between coherent modulation methods :::::::::::: 499
Trade-offs for QAM systems :::::::::::::::::: 502
Comparison of modulation methods :::::::::::::: 502
6.10 Limits imposed by information theory :::::::::::::::::: 503
Capacity of a system using amplitude modulation ::::::: 504
Coding strategies depending on the signal-to-noise ratio :::: 506
Coding gain ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 508
Cut-off rate ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 509
6.11 Optimum receivers for signals with random phase :::::::::::: 509
ML criterion :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 510
Implementation of a non-coherent ML receiver :::::::: 512
Error probability for a non-coherent binary FSK system :::: 516
Performance comparison of binary systems :::::::::: 519
6.12 Binary modulation systems in the presence of flat fading ::::::::: 520
Diversity :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 521
6.13 Transmission methods ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 522
6.13.1 Transmission methods between two users ::::::::::::: 522
Three methods ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 523
6.13.2 Channel sharing: deterministic access methods :::::::::: 523
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 525
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 527
6.A Gaussian distribution function and Marcum function ::::::::::: 527
6.A.1 The Q function :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 527
6.A.2 The Marcum function ::::::::::::::::::::::: 529
6.B Gray coding :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 531
6.C Baseband PPM and PDM ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 532
Signal-to-noise ratio :::::::::::::::::::::: 532
6.D Walsh codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 536
7 Transmission over dispersive channels 539
7.1 Baseband digital transmission (PAM systems) :::::::::::::: 539
Transmitter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 539
Transmission channel :::::::::::::::::::::: 541
Receiver ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 542
Power spectral density of a PAM signal :::::::::::: 543
7.2 Passband digital transmission (QAM systems) :::::::::::::: 544
Transmitter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 544
Power spectral density of a QAM signal :::::::::::: 546
Three equivalent representations of the modulator ::::::: 547
Coherent receiver :::::::::::::::::::::::: 548
7.3 Baseband equivalent model of a QAM system :::::::::::::: 549
7.3.1 Signal analysis ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 550
Signal-to-noise ratio :::::::::::::::::::::: 552
7.3.2 Characterization of system elements ::::::::::::::: 553
Transmitter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 553
Transmission channel :::::::::::::::::::::: 553
Receiver ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 555
7.3.3 Intersymbol interference :::::::::::::::::::::: 556
Discrete-time equivalent system :::::::::::::::: 556
Nyquist pulses ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 559
Eye diagram ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 562
7.3.4 Performance analysis ::::::::::::::::::::::: 565
Symbol error probability in the absence of ISI ::::::::: 565
Matched filter receiver ::::::::::::::::::::: 567
7.4 Carrierless AM/PM (CAP) modulation :::::::::::::::::: 568
7.5 Regenerative PCM repeaters :::::::::::::::::::::::: 571
7.5.1 PCM signals over a binary channel :::::::::::::::: 571
Linear PCM coding of waveforms ::::::::::::::: 572
Overall system performance :::::::::::::::::: 573
7.5.2 Regenerative repeaters ::::::::::::::::::::::: 575
Analog transmission :::::::::::::::::::::: 576
Digital transmission ::::::::::::::::::::::: 577
Comparison between analog and digital transmission ::::: 578
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 581
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 583
7.A Line codes for PAM systems ::::::::::::::::::::::: 583
7.A.1 Line codes ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 583
Non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format :::::::::::::::: 583
Return-to-zero (RZ) format ::::::::::::::::::: 584
Biphase (B-)format :::::::::::::::::::::: 584
Delay modulation or Miller code :::::::::::::::: 585
Block line codes :::::::::::::::::::::::: 585
Alternate mark inversion (AMI) :::::::::::::::: 586
7.A.2 Partial response systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 587
The choice of the PR polynomial :::::::::::::::: 590
Symbol detection and error probability ::::::::::::: 594
Precoding :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 596
Error probability with precoding :::::::::::::::: 597
Alternative interpretation of PR systems :::::::::::: 599
7.B Computation of Pe for some cases of interest ::::::::::::::: 602
7.B.1 Pe in the absence of ISI :::::::::::::::::::::: 602
7.B.2 Pe in the presence of ISI ::::::::::::::::::::: 604
Exhaustive method ::::::::::::::::::::::: 604
Gaussian approximation :::::::::::::::::::: 605
Worst-case limit ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 605
Saltzberg limit ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 606
GQR method :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 607
7.C Coherent PAM-DSB transmission ::::::::::::::::::::: 608
General scheme ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 608
Transmit signal PSD :::::::::::::::::::::: 609
Signal-to-noise ratio :::::::::::::::::::::: 609
7.D Implementation of a QAM transmitter :::::::::::::::::: 611
7.E Simulation of a QAM system ::::::::::::::::::::::: 613
8 Channel equalization and symbol detection 619
8.1 Zero-forcing equalizer (LE-ZF) :::::::::::::::::::::: 619
8.2 Linear equalizer (LE) ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 620
8.2.1 Optimum receiver in the presence of noise and ISI :::::::: 620
Alternative derivation of the IIR equalizer ::::::::::: 622
Signal-to-noise ratio  ::::::::::::::::::::: 626
8.3 LE with a finite number of coefficients :::::::::::::::::: 627
Adaptive LE :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 628
8.4 Fractionally spaced equalizer (FSE) :::::::::::::::::::: 630
Adaptive FSE :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 633
8.5 Decision feedback equalizer (DFE) :::::::::::::::::::: 635
Adaptive DFE :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 638
Design of a DFE with a finite number of coefficients ::::: 639
Design of a fractionally spaced DFE (FS-DFE) :::::::: 642
Signal-to-noise ratio  ::::::::::::::::::::: 644
Remarks ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 645
8.6 Convergence behavior of adaptive equalizers ::::::::::::::: 645
Adaptive LE :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 646
Adaptive DFE :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 648
8.7 LE-ZF with a finite number of coefficients :::::::::::::::: 648
8.8 DFE: alternative configurations :::::::::::::::::::::: 649
DFE-ZF ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 649
DFE-ZF as a noise predictor :::::::::::::::::: 655
DFE as ISI and noise predictor ::::::::::::::::: 655
8.9 Benchmark performance for two equalizers :::::::::::::::: 657
Performance comparison :::::::::::::::::::: 657
Equalizer performance for two channel models :::::::: 658
8.10 Optimum methods for data detection ::::::::::::::::::: 659
8.10.1 Maximum likelihood sequence detection ::::::::::::: 662
Lower limit to error probability using
the MLSD criterion :::::::::::::::: 663
The Viterbi algorithm (VA) ::::::::::::::::::: 663
Computational complexity of the VA :::::::::::::: 667
8.10.2 Maximum a posteriori probability detector :::::::::::: 668
Statistical description of a sequential machine ::::::::: 668
The forward-backward algorithm (FBA) :::::::::::: 670
Scaling ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 673
Likelihood function in the absence of ISI ::::::::::: 674
Simplified version of the MAP algorithm (Max-Log-MAP) :: 675
Relation between Max-Log-MAP and Log-MAP :::::::: 677
8.11 Optimum receivers for transmission over dispersive channels :::::: 678
Ungerboeck’s formulation of the MLSD :::::::::::: 680
8.12 Error probability achieved by MLSD ::::::::::::::::::: 682
Computation of the minimum distance ::::::::::::: 686
8.13 Reduced state sequence detection ::::::::::::::::::::: 691
Reduced state trellis diagram :::::::::::::::::: 691
RSSE algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 694
Further simplification: DFSE :::::::::::::::::: 695
8.14 Passband equalizers :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 697
8.14.1 Passband receiver structure :::::::::::::::::::: 698
Joint optimization of equalizer coefficients
and carrier phase offset :::::::::::::: 700
Adaptive method :::::::::::::::::::::::: 701
8.14.2 Efficient implementations of voiceband modems ::::::::: 703
8.15 LE for voiceband modems ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 705
Detection of the training sequence ::::::::::::::: 706
Computations of the coefficients of a cyclic equalizer ::::: 707
Transition from training to data mode ::::::::::::: 709
Example of application: a simple modem ::::::::::: 709
8.16 LE and DFE in the frequency domain with data frames using cyclic prefix 710
8.17 Numerical results obtained by simulations :::::::::::::::: 713
QPSK transmission over a minimum phase channel :::::: 713
QPSK transmission over a non-minimum phase channel :::: 715
8-PSK transmission over a minimum phase channel :::::: 716
8-PSK transmission over a non-minimum phase channel ::: 716
8.18 Diversity combining techniques :::::::::::::::::::::: 717
Antenna arrays ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 718
Combining techniques ::::::::::::::::::::: 719
Equalization and diversity ::::::::::::::::::: 722
Diversity in transmission :::::::::::::::::::: 722
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 726
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 731
8.A Calculus of variations and receiver optimization ::::::::::::: 731
8.A.1 Calculus of variations ::::::::::::::::::::::: 731
Linear functional :::::::::::::::::::::::: 731
Quadratic functional :::::::::::::::::::::: 732
8.A.2 Receiver optimization ::::::::::::::::::::::: 735
8.A.3 Joint optimization of transmitter and receiver ::::::::::: 739
8.B DFE design: matrix formulations ::::::::::::::::::::: 741
8.B.1 Method based on correlation sequences :::::::::::::: 741
8.B.2 Method based on the channel impulse response
and i.i.d. symbols ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 744
8.B.3 Method based on the channel impulse response
and any symbol statistic :::::::::::::::::::::: 746
8.B.4 FS-DFE :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 747
8.C Equalization based on the peak value of ISI ::::::::::::::: 749
8.D Description of a finite state machine (FSM) :::::::::::::::: 751
9 Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing 753
9.1 OFDM systems :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 753
9.2 Orthogonality conditions :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 755
Time domain :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 755
Frequency domain ::::::::::::::::::::::: 755
z-transform domain ::::::::::::::::::::::: 755
9.3 Efficient implementation of OFDM systems ::::::::::::::: 756
OFDM implementation employing matched filters ::::::: 757
Orthogonality conditions in terms
of the polyphase components ::::::::::: 759
OFDM implementation employing a prototype filter :::::: 760
9.4 Non-critically sampled filter banks :::::::::::::::::::: 764
9.5 Examples of OFDM systems ::::::::::::::::::::::: 769
Discrete multitone (DMT) ::::::::::::::::::: 770
Filtered multitone (FMT) :::::::::::::::::::: 771
Discrete wavelet multitone (DWMT) :::::::::::::: 771
9.6 Equalization of OFDM systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 773
Interpolator filter and virtual subchannels ::::::::::: 773
Equalization of DMT systems ::::::::::::::::: 775
Equalization of FMT systems :::::::::::::::::: 777
9.7 Synchronization of OFDM systems :::::::::::::::::::: 779
9.8 Passband OFDM systems ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 780
Passband DWMT systems ::::::::::::::::::: 780
Passband DMT and FMT systems ::::::::::::::: 781
Comparison between OFDM and QAM systems :::::::: 781
9.9 DWMT modulation :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 782
Transmit and receive filter banks :::::::::::::::: 783
Approximate interchannel interference suppression :::::: 786
Perfect interchannel interference suppression :::::::::: 788
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 793
10 Spread spectrum systems 795
10.1 Spread spectrum techniques :::::::::::::::::::::::: 795
10.1.1 Direct sequence systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 795
Classification of CDMA systems :::::::::::::::: 802
Synchronization ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 804
10.1.2 Frequency hopping systems :::::::::::::::::::: 804
Classification of FH systems :::::::::::::::::: 806
10.2 Applications of spread spectrum systems ::::::::::::::::: 807
10.2.1 Anti-jam communications ::::::::::::::::::::: 808
10.2.2 Multiple-access systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 810
10.2.3 Interference rejection ::::::::::::::::::::::: 811
10.3 Chip matched filter and rake receiver ::::::::::::::::::: 811
Number of resolvable rays in a multipath channel ::::::: 811
Chip matched filter (CMF) ::::::::::::::::::: 813
10.4 Interference :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 816
Detection strategies for multiple-access systems :::::::: 818
10.5 Equalizers for single-user detection :::::::::::::::::::: 818
Chip equalizer (CE) ::::::::::::::::::::::: 818
Symbol equalizer (SE) ::::::::::::::::::::: 819
10.6 Block equalizer for multiuser detection :::::::::::::::::: 820
10.7 Maximum likelihood multiuser detector :::::::::::::::::: 823
Correlation matrix approach :::::::::::::::::: 823
Whitening filter approach :::::::::::::::::::: 824
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 824
11 Channel codes 827
11.1 System model ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 828
11.2 Block codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 830
11.2.1 Theory of binary codes with group structure ::::::::::: 830
Properties :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 830
Parity check matrix ::::::::::::::::::::::: 833
Code generator matrix ::::::::::::::::::::: 836
Decoding of binary parity check codes ::::::::::::: 837
Cosets :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 837
Two conceptually simple decoding methods :::::::::: 838
Syndrome decoding ::::::::::::::::::::::: 839
11.2.2 Fundamentals of algebra ::::::::::::::::::::: 842
Modulo q arithmetic :::::::::::::::::::::: 843
Polynomials with coefficients from a field ::::::::::: 845
The concept of modulo in the arithmetic of polynomials ::: 846
Devices to sum and multiply elements in a finite field ::::: 849
Remarks on finite fields ::::::::::::::::::::: 851
Roots of a polynomial ::::::::::::::::::::: 854
Minimum function ::::::::::::::::::::::: 857
Methods to determine the minimum function ::::::::: 859
Properties of the minimum function :::::::::::::: 861
11.2.3 Cyclic codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 862
The algebra of cyclic codes ::::::::::::::::::: 862
Properties of cyclic codes :::::::::::::::::::: 864
Encoding method using a shift register of length r :::::: 869
Encoding method using a shift register of length k :::::: 870
Hard decoding of cyclic codes ::::::::::::::::: 871
Hamming codes ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 872
Burst error detection :::::::::::::::::::::: 875
11.2.4 Simplex cyclic codes ::::::::::::::::::::::: 875
Relation to PN sequences :::::::::::::::::::: 877
11.2.5 BCH codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 878
An alternative method to specify the code polynomials :::: 878
Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenhem (BCH) codes :::::::::: 880
Binary BCH codes ::::::::::::::::::::::: 883
Reed–Solomon codes :::::::::::::::::::::: 885
Decoding of BCH codes :::::::::::::::::::: 887
Efficient decoding of BCH codes :::::::::::::::: 891
11.2.6 Performance of block codes :::::::::::::::::::: 899
11.3 Convolutional codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 900
11.3.1 General description of convolutional codes :::::::::::: 903
Parity check matrix ::::::::::::::::::::::: 905
Generator matrix :::::::::::::::::::::::: 906
Transfer function :::::::::::::::::::::::: 907
Catastrophic error propagation ::::::::::::::::: 910
11.3.2 Decoding of convolutional codes ::::::::::::::::: 912
Interleaving ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 913
Two decoding models :::::::::::::::::::::: 913
Viterbi algorithm :::::::::::::::::::::::: 915
Forward-backward algorithm :::::::::::::::::: 915
Sequential decoding ::::::::::::::::::::::: 917
11.3.3 Performance of convolutional codes ::::::::::::::: 919
11.4 Concatenated codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 921
Soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) ::::::::::::: 921
11.5 Turbo codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 924
Encoding :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 924
The basic principle of iterative decoding :::::::::::: 929
The forward-backward algorithm revisited ::::::::::: 930
Iterative decoding :::::::::::::::::::::::: 939
Performance evaluation ::::::::::::::::::::: 941
11.6 Iterative detection and decoding ::::::::::::::::::::: 943
11.7 Low-density parity check codes :::::::::::::::::::::: 946
Encoding procedure ::::::::::::::::::::::: 948
Decoding algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::: 948
Example of application ::::::::::::::::::::: 953
Performance and coding gain :::::::::::::::::: 954
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 956
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 960
11.A Nonbinary parity check codes ::::::::::::::::::::::: 960
Linear codes :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 961
Parity check matrix ::::::::::::::::::::::: 962
Code generator matrix ::::::::::::::::::::: 963
Decoding of nonbinary parity check codes ::::::::::: 964
Coset :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 964
Two conceptually simple decoding methods :::::::::: 965
Syndrome decoding ::::::::::::::::::::::: 965
12 Trellis coded modulation 967
12.1 Linear TCM for one- and two-dimensional signal sets :::::::::: 968
12.1.1 Fundamental elements ::::::::::::::::::::::: 968
Basic TCM scheme ::::::::::::::::::::::: 970
Example ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 970
12.1.2 Set partitioning :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 973
12.1.3 Lattices :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 975
12.1.4 Assignment of symbols to the transitions in the trellis :::::: 980
12.1.5 General structure of the encoder/bit-mapper ::::::::::: 985
Computation of dfree :::::::::::::::::::::: 987
12.2 Multidimensional TCM :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 990
Encoding :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 990
Decoding :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 993
12.3 Rotationally invariant TCM schemes ::::::::::::::::::: 995
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 996
13 Precoding and coding techniques for dispersive channels 999
13.1 Capacity of a dispersive channel ::::::::::::::::::::: 999
13.2 Techniques to achieve capacity :::::::::::::::::::::: 1002
Bit loading for OFDM ::::::::::::::::::::: 1002
Discrete-time model of a single carrier system ::::::::: 1003
Achieving capacity with a single carrier system :::::::: 1007
13.3 Precoding and coding for dispersive channels ::::::::::::::: 1008
13.3.1 Tomlinson–Harashima (TH) precoding :::::::::::::: 1009
13.3.2 TH precoding and TCM :::::::::::::::::::::: 1012
13.3.3 Flexible precoding ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1018
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1025
14 Synchronization 1027
14.1 The problem of synchronization for QAM systems :::::::::::: 1027
14.2 The phase-locked loop ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1029
14.2.1 PLL baseband model ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1031
Linear approximation :::::::::::::::::::::: 1032
14.2.2 Analysis of the PLL in the presence of additive noise :::::: 1034
Noise analysis using the linearity assumption ::::::::: 1035
14.2.3 Analysis of a second-order PLL :::::::::::::::::: 1036
14.3 Costas loop :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1040
14.3.1 PAM signals :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1040
14.3.2 QAM signals ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1042
14.4 The optimum receiver ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1044
Timing recovery :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1046
Carrier phase recovery ::::::::::::::::::::: 1050
14.5 Algorithms for timing and carrier phase recovery ::::::::::::: 1051
14.5.1 ML criterion :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1051
Assumption of slow time varying channel ::::::::::: 1051
14.5.2 Taxonomy of algorithms using the ML criterion ::::::::: 1051
Feedback estimators :::::::::::::::::::::: 1053
Early-late estimators :::::::::::::::::::::: 1055
14.5.3 Timing estimators ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1055
Non-data aided ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1055
Non-data aided via spectral estimation ::::::::::::: 1057
Data-aided and data-directed :::::::::::::::::: 1059
Data- and phase-directed with feedback:
differentiator scheme :::::::::::::::: 1062
Data- and phase-directed with feedback:
Mueller & Muller scheme ::::::::::::: 1064
Non-data aided with feedback ::::::::::::::::: 1065
14.5.4 Phasor estimators ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1066
Data- and timing-directed :::::::::::::::::::: 1066
Non-data aided for M-PSK signals ::::::::::::::: 1066
Data- and timing-directed with feedback :::::::::::: 1067
14.6 Algorithms for carrier frequency recovery :::::::::::::::: 1068
14.6.1 Frequency offset estimators :::::::::::::::::::: 1069
Non-data aided ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1069
Non-data aided and timing-independent with feedback ::::: 1071
Non-data aided and timing-directed with feedback ::::::: 1071
14.6.2 Estimators operating at the modulation rate :::::::::::: 1072
Data-aided and data-directed :::::::::::::::::: 1073
Non-data aided for M-PSK ::::::::::::::::::: 1073
14.7 Second-order digital PLL ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1074
14.8 Synchronization in spread spectrum systems ::::::::::::::: 1074
14.8.1 The transmission system ::::::::::::::::::::: 1074
Transmitter ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1074
Optimum receiver :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1075
14.8.2 Timing estimators with feedback ::::::::::::::::: 1076
Non-data aided: non-coherent DLL ::::::::::::::: 1076
Non-data aided MCTL ::::::::::::::::::::: 1077
Data- and phase-directed: coherent DLL :::::::::::: 1077
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1081
15 Self-training equalization 1083
15.1 Problem definition and fundamentals ::::::::::::::::::: 1083
Minimization of a special function ::::::::::::::: 1086
15.2 Three algorithms for PAM systems :::::::::::::::::::: 1090
The Sato algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1090
Benveniste–Goursat algorithm ::::::::::::::::: 1091
Stop-and-go algorithm ::::::::::::::::::::: 1092
Remarks ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1092
15.3 The contour algorithm for PAM systems ::::::::::::::::: 1093
Simplified realization of the contour algorithm ::::::::: 1095
15.4 Self-training equalization for partial response systems :::::::::: 1096
The Sato algorithm for partial response systems :::::::: 1096
Contour algorithm for partial response systems :::::::: 1098
15.5 Self-training equalization for QAM systems ::::::::::::::: 1100
The Sato algorithm for QAM systems ::::::::::::: 1100
15.5.1 Constant modulus algorithm :::::::::::::::::::: 1101
The contour algorithm for QAM systems ::::::::::: 1102
Joint contour algorithm and carrier phase tracking ::::::: 1104
15.6 Examples of applications ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1106
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1111
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1113
15.A On the convergence of the contour algorithm ::::::::::::::: 1113
16 Applications of interference cancellation 1115
16.1 Echo and near–end cross-talk cancellation for PAM systems ::::::: 1116
Cross-talk cancellation and full duplex transmission :::::: 1117
Polyphase structure of the canceller :::::::::::::: 1118
Canceller at symbol rate :::::::::::::::::::: 1119
Adaptive canceller ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1120
Canceller structure with distributed arithmetic ::::::::: 1121
16.2 Echo cancellation for QAM systems ::::::::::::::::::: 1124
16.3 Echo cancellation for OFDM systems ::::::::::::::::::: 1128
16.4 Multiuser detection for VDSL ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1131
16.4.1 Upstream power back-off ::::::::::::::::::::: 1136
16.4.2 Comparison of PBO methods ::::::::::::::::::: 1137
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1142
17 Wired and wireless network technologies 1145
17.1 Wired network technologies :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1145
17.1.1 Transmission over unshielded twisted pairs in the customer
service area :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1145
Modem ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1145
Digital subscriber line ::::::::::::::::::::: 1146
17.1.2 High speed transmission over unshielded twisted pairs
in local area networks ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1152
17.1.3 Hybrid fiber/coaxial cable networks :::::::::::::::: 1156
Ranging and power adjustment for uplink
transmission :::::::::::::::::::: 1158
17.2 Wireless network technologies ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1161
17.2.1 Wireless local area networks ::::::::::::::::::: 1162
Medium access control protocols :::::::::::::::: 1164
17.2.2 MMDS and LMDS :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1165
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1167
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1170
17.A Standards for wireless systems :::::::::::::::::::::: 1170
17.A.1 General observations ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1171
Wireless systems :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1171
Modulation techniques ::::::::::::::::::::: 1171
Parameters of the modulator :::::::::::::::::: 1171
Cells in a wireless system ::::::::::::::::::: 1172
17.A.2 GSM standard ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1172
System characteristics :::::::::::::::::::::: 1172
Radio subsystem :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1175
GSM-EDGE ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1177
17.A.3 IS-136 standard :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1177
17.A.4 JDC standard ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1180
17.A.5 IS-95 standard ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1180
17.A.6 DECT standard :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1182
17.A.7 HIPERLAN standard ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1185
18 Modulation techniques for wireless systems 1189
18.1 Analog front-end architectures ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1189
Conventional superheterodyne receiver ::::::::::::: 1189
Alternative architectures :::::::::::::::::::: 1190
Direct conversion receiver ::::::::::::::::::: 1190
Single conversion to low-IF :::::::::::::::::: 1191
Double conversion and wideband IF :::::::::::::: 1192
18.2 Three non-coherent receivers for phase modulation systems ::::::: 1192
18.2.1 Baseband differential detector ::::::::::::::::::: 1192
18.2.2 IF-band (1 Bit) differential detector (1BDD) ::::::::::: 1194
Performance of M-DPSK :::::::::::::::::::: 1196
18.2.3 FM discriminator with integrate and dump filter (LDI) :::::: 1197
18.3 Variants of QPSK ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1198
18.3.1 Basic schemes ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1198
QPSK :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1198
Offset QPSK or staggered QPSK :::::::::::::::: 1200
Differential QPSK (DQPSK) :::::::::::::::::: 1201
³=4-DQPSK :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1202
18.3.2 Implementations :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1203
QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK modulators ::::::::::: 1203
³=4-DQPSK modulators :::::::::::::::::::: 1203
18.4 Frequency shift keying (FSK) ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1207
18.4.1 Power spectrum of M-FSK :::::::::::::::::::: 1207
Power spectrum of non-coherent binary FSK ::::::::: 1208
Power spectrum of coherent M-FSK :::::::::::::: 1209
18.4.2 FSK receivers and corresponding performance :::::::::: 1212
Coherent demodulator ::::::::::::::::::::: 1212
Non-coherent demodulator ::::::::::::::::::: 1213
Limiter-discriminator FM demodulator ::::::::::::: 1213
18.5 Minimum shift keying (MSK) ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1214
18.5.1 Power spectrum of continuous-phase FSK (CPFSK) ::::::: 1217
18.5.2 The MSK signal viewed from two perspectives ::::::::: 1217
Phase of an MSK signal :::::::::::::::::::: 1217
MSK as binary CPFSK ::::::::::::::::::::: 1219
MSK as OQPSK :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1220
Complex notation of an MSK signal :::::::::::::: 1222
18.5.3 Implementations of an MSK scheme ::::::::::::::: 1224
18.5.4 Performance of MSK demodulators :::::::::::::::: 1224
MSK with differential precoding :::::::::::::::: 1227
18.5.5 Remarks on spectral containment ::::::::::::::::: 1228
18.6 Gaussian MSK (GMSK) ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1229
18.6.1 GMSK via CPFSK :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1229
18.6.2 Power spectrum of GMSK :::::::::::::::::::: 1231
18.6.3 Implementation of a GMSK scheme ::::::::::::::: 1234
Configuration I ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1234
Configuration II ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1234
Configuration III :::::::::::::::::::::::: 1236
18.6.4 Linear approximation of a GMSK signal ::::::::::::: 1238
Performance of GMSK demodulators ::::::::::::: 1238
Performance of a GSM receiver in the
presence of multipath ::::::::::::::: 1243
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1244
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1246
18.A Continuous phase modulation (CPM) ::::::::::::::::::: 1246
Alternative definition of CPM ::::::::::::::::: 1246
Advantages of CPM :::::::::::::::::::::: 1248
19 Design of high speed transmission systems over
unshielded twisted pair cables 1249
19.1 Design of a quaternary partial response class-IV system for data transmis-
sion at 125Mbit/s ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1249
Analog filter design ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1249
Received signal and adaptive gain control ::::::::::: 1250
Near-end cross-talk cancellation :::::::::::::::: 1251
Decorrelation filter ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1251
Adaptive equalizer ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1252
Compensation of the timing phase drift :::::::::::: 1252
Adaptive equalizer coefficient adaptation :::::::::::: 1253
Convergence behavior of the various algorithms :::::::: 1253
19.1.1 VLSI implementation ::::::::::::::::::::::: 1255
Adaptive digital NEXT canceller :::::::::::::::: 1255
Adaptive digital equalizer :::::::::::::::::::: 1258
Timing control ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1261
Viterbi detector ::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1262
19.2 Design of a dual duplex transmission system at 100Mbit/s :::::::: 1263
Dual duplex transmission :::::::::::::::::::: 1263
Physical layer control :::::::::::::::::::::: 1265
Coding and decoding :::::::::::::::::::::: 1266
19.2.1 Signal processing functions :::::::::::::::::::: 1269
The 100BASE-T2 transmitter :::::::::::::::::: 1269
The 100BASE-T2 receiver ::::::::::::::::::: 1270
Computational complexity of digital receive filters ::::::: 1272
Bibliography ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1273
Appendices ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1274
19.A Interference suppression :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1274

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